Find & Replace
Finally, there is a small area on the right side of the Home tab which allows you to find and replace text:
The "Find" dialog box has three main parts:
- These shapes at the top of a dialog box are called "tabs" (don't confuse them with tabs on the ruler). Each one will show a new set of choices in the dialog box, like different layers or pages.
- The text window. Type what you want to find in this box.
- Buttons. If you click the one that says "More," you can get more choices for finding text.
The "Find" dialog box is very simple, really. Type in the text string you want to find, and click "Find Next." If you want to find the same text string again, just click "Find Next" again.
This is not case-sensitive (though you can change that in the "More" area). You can type part of a word, a whole word, or several words.
If you would like to change a text string into something different, you can use this feature. For example, if you want to find every time you wrote the word "America" and replace them all with "the United States" you would use this. In the illustration below, we are changing the word "apple" to the word "orange":
1. This is the text that you want to change
2. This is the text you want to put into the place of the old text.
3. This will replace the next text string, one at a time.
4. This will replace all of the text strings in the whole document.
To get more choices, just click on the "More" button:
1. Match Case - With this option on, only words with the same upper-case and lower-case pattern will be found. For example, if you try to find "Hello" then the word "hello" will not be found."
2. Find Whole Words Only - Usually, if you type "the," then Find or Replace will look for any word that contains those three letters, including "the," "then," "there," "weather," "tithe," and so on. If you choose this option, then the same search would ONLY find the word "the" and ignore the others.
3. Use Wildcards - This allows you to use special characters for a search--for example, the wildcard "?" means "any letter." That is, if you search for "t?n" then MS Word will find the words "ten," "tin," "ton," and "tan."
4. Sounds Like - If you are not sure of the spelling of a word, you can search for something that sounds like it. For example, a search for "tone" would find the word "tune."
5. Find all word forms - This will find words that are the same meaning, but are different word types. For example, a search for "go" will find "went," "goes," and going."
6. Format - This allows you to find or replace using formatting (see below).
7. Special - This allows you to find or replace using special terms (see below).
To use "Format," just select what you would want to change. For example, let's say that you want to find the word "home" but only when it is colored red and is 18 point. Since text color and size is under "Font," you would choose the font command.
Similarly, you can use formats when you Replace something. For example, let's say that you want to find every word spelled "apple," and make them 12 point and bold. You click on the "Format" button, select "Font," and then choose "Bold" and "12 point." When you close the "Font" window, you will see this:
Notice the words after the word "format" under "Replace with" (1). You can see that it now says "Font: 12 pt, Bold."
It is IMPORTANT to remember that the formatting of a FIND or REPLACE text string will only affect the one you have clicked in. To change the format of the "Replace with" text, you have to first click in the "Replace with" box and then click on "Format," and so on.
With things set up this way, MS Word will find the word "apple," and replace all of them with the same word at 12 point and bold.
You can use many other settings (font color, underline, indents, margins, etc.) to select only some of the instances of a word.
If you want to "undo" the formatting of the FIND or REPLACE text, just click in that box, then click on the "No Formatting" button (2).
Next is the "Special" button:
This allows you to find or replace special typing, such as a paragraph or tab--these are things you cannot type directly into the boxes for FIND and REPLACE. If you hit the "Enter" button, for example, it will simply be the same as clicking the "Find Next" button. If you hit the "Tab" key, it would simply move you to the next box or button in the dialog box.
Each of these special typing points has a code. For example, a paragraph is written as "^p" and the tab is written as "^t".
Styles are preset font and paragraph formats. If you use a certain set of format choices, you can save them in a "style," and then easily apply that style to any new text. MS Word gives you a number of pre-set styles to choose from. However, if you want, you can create your own.
Each style may contain any number of formatting options. In the Styles list (click the dialog-box button at lower right of the Styles section of the Ribbon), the "Normal" font setting is described as:
That's Times New Roman font, left-aligned, single-spaced, with Widow and Orphan Control. You can change any or all of these settings and then save it as a "Quick Style." Usually, "Quick Styles" only appear in the document you are using right now. However, it is possible to make them permanent.
For example, let's say that you are writing MLA essays often. MLA essays call for certain styles. All text must be in Times New Roman, 12 point, double-spaced. Other than that:
- At the top of the first page, your name, class, teacher's name, and the date must be left-aligned, no indent
- The title of the essay and the "Works Cited List" title must be center-aligned, no indent
- All body paragraphs must be left-aligned, with a 0.5" first-line indent
- All Works Cited citations must be left-aligned, with a 0.5" hanging indent
- Quotes which are more than 4 lines long must be left-aligned and have a left indent on one inch
Usually, you would have to select each paragraph or set of paragraphs and set each format point separately. That could take a lot of time. However, if you take the time to establish Styles, it could be a lot easier.
Here's how. Let's say that you want to set the body paragraph style for an MLA essay.
- First, set all of the formatting in some text you have written. Set the font to Times New Roman, 12 point, 0.5" first-line indent, left-aligned, double-spaced, Widow and Orphan Control turned on.
- Next, select the paragraph that you just formatted.
- Right-click on the selected text, and from the pop-up menu, click "Save Selection as a New Quick Style…"
- You will see the dialog box below. Click "Modify."
- In the dialog box below, change the name to whatever you like. Make sure all the settings are correct; if anything is not right, you can change the formatting here; if you can't find the right place to change it, click on the "Format" button at lower left and get it from there.
AN IMPORTANT POINT: if you want this Style to appear in ALL of your documents, click "New documents based on this template" at the bottom!
- When you are finished, click "OK."
From that time onward, you will be able to see the "MLA Body" Style in the Style section of the Home Tab. To apply the style, just select the text and click the correct style button.
If you do this for all five of the different MLA Styles, then formatting an MLA paper should be easy in the future!
These are found in the Insert tab:
A Cover Page is used in some essays as a decorative cover or top page. MLA style says that a research paper does not need a cover page--though it is not strictly forbidden. Many teachers will allow them, and some students enjoy making them. However, you might want to check with your teacher before using a cover page.
The Blank Page button will advance you to the next page, leaving the page you are on as blank. You can then add images or other objects to the blank page.
The Page Break feature is very useful when you need to start a new section at the top of a new page. Most people just hit the "Enter" key until they reach the next page, but that's not a good idea: if you make changes on previous pages, it could change the spacing and the "next page" text could be dragged back to the bottom of the previous page.
The Page Break will always keep text at the beginning of a new page.
Another way to create a page break is with the keyboard shortcut Control-Enter.
Really, the "Blank Page" button is actually the same as Page Break. There are small differences, but nothing important enough to mention here.
Page Breaks are often used when you finish a chapter or section, and wish to start at the top of a new page.
You will use Page Breaks when you finish writing the body of an essay, and you need to start the Works Cited List. That list must begin at the top of a new page.
Headers & Footers
These are special areas at the top and bottom of your page. They often contain page numbers and information about the essay and/or the author. In published books, you can often find the author's name, the book's title, or the chapter title in the header, as well as page numbers.
When writing an MLA essay, you will usually not need footers. Instead, you will need to put your surname (family name) and the page number in the header.
First of all, let's look at what a header looks like. You can access the header easily: just double-click in the top margin. This view will appear:
Note the two tabs in the ruler: a center tab at mid-page, and a right tab at the right margin. This allows for three typing positions: (1) starting at the left margin, text going to the right; (2) starting at the center, text spreading out from the center; and (3) starting at the right margin, text going to the left.
However, MS Word has many pre-set header styles. Depending on what format you must follow, you might choose a different button. For example, when you click on the "Header" button, you will be presented with a menu of these choices:
You can use these styles... if your teacher allows such styles. The MLA, however, simply requires your surname and the page number in the top right corner.
The page number is a special kind of object called a Field. A "Field" is text that changes automatically. When you insert a page number, it must be different on every page. Therefore, you cannot simply type the number "1." It must instead be a "Field."
In previous versions of MS Word, there was a simple "Page Number" button, but MS Word 2007 has made that more difficult. Instead of typing your name and then clicking the Page Number button, you instead must choose a Page Number style:
If you choose any options from "Top of Page" ("Plain Number 3" will place the page number at far right, what MLA asks for) then anything else you typed there will disappear. So, if you use that option, then place the page number first, and then type your family name followed by a space before the page number.
Otherwise, you can type your family name and space first, and then select "Page Number," then "Current Position," and then "Plain Number."
Choose the "Plain Number 3," for example; then click to the left of the number, and type your family name and a space.
There is an alternate way to insert a simple page number, but it is not a simple way. Go to the Insert tab, click on Quick Parts, select Field from the menu, and then find "Page" from "Field names," and then click OK. That will insert a simple page number field.
Once you are in the Header or Footer, you will see these options in the Ribbon:
Of special interest is this section:
These are the Document Level Changes for the Header and Footers. They include:
- Different First Page: This lets you have a different header for the first page only; it is commonly used when there is a Title Page.
- Different Odd & Even Pages: This is used when you print in double-sided book format; the page numbers should be on the outer side of the page, away from the binding. For odd-numbered pages, the header should be on the right, and for even-numbered pages, it should be on the left.
- Show Document Text: shows or hides the text in the body of the document.
- Header from Top: sets the Header Margin, or how far the header is from the top of the piece of paper. This usually is set to 0.5".
- Footer from Bottom: sets the Footer Margin, or how far the footer is from the bottom of the piece of paper. This usually is set to 0.5".
- Insert Alignment Tab: an advanced feature; don't worry about it.
There is also a "Close Header and Footer" button, but you can go back to editing your document by double-clicking on the body of the document.